Dr. Weyrich's Naturopathic Functional Medicine Notebook is a collection of information on topics of interest to Dr. Weyrich that may be of interest to the world wide audience. Due to limitations of time, not all information that Dr. Weyrich knows or would like to further research is published here. Dr. Weyrich welcomes financial contributions to support specific research topics, as well as copies of non-free access journal articles for him to review on a topic. Constructive criticism is also welcome.


Overview of Epilepsy and other Seizure Disorders

There are many different types of seizure disorders, including:

  • Partial/focal
  • General
    • absence (petite mal)
    • myoclonic
    • tonic
    • tonic-clonic
    • atonic

Complimentary and alternative treatments for epilepsy that are considered below include:

  • Genomics, Epigenetics, and Nutrigenomics
  • Ketogenic Diet
  • Low Dose Naltrexone
  • Neuro-Gen High Performance Neuromodulation (HPN)
  • Neurotransmitter Balancing

Etiology of Epilepsy and other Seizure Disorders

The cause of most cases of seizure disorders is unknown; although it is known that exposure to certain toxic chemicals can induce seizure activity.

Although a causal relationship has not been definitively established, increased use of oral antibiotics to treat Otitis Media is associated with increased incidence of childhood seizures [Shaw2008].

Elevated urinary levels of 3-hydroxyphenyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid (HPHPA) and other markers of dysbiotic overgrowth with Clostridia spp. are common in seizure disorders [GP].

Tapeworm (Taenia solium infestations has been associated with seizures and strokelike symptoms [Tabers2013].


Diagnosis of Epilepsy and other Seizure Disorders


Differential Diagnosis of Epilepsy and other Seizure Disorders


Treatment of Epilepsy and other Seizure Disorders

Please see conventional, complimentary and alternative medical treatments for important background information regarding the different types of medical treatments discussed below.

Naturopathic, Complimentary and Alternative Treatments

Genomics, Epigenetics, and Nutrigenomics

A number of genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with epilepsy. Knowlege of the specific genetic issues may guide more specific indvidualized treatments. In particular, the following genes and SNPs are of potential interest:

  • Gene ELP4 SNPs: rs964112, rs11031434, and rs986527 (associated with rolandic epilepsy) [https://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Epilepsy].
  • Gene SCN1A (associated with Dravet syndrome) [https://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Epilepsy].
  • 5 SNPs predict treatment outcomes [PMID 19077679].
  • SNP rs2273697 influences side effects from carbamazepine [https://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Epilepsy].
  • SNP rs2298771 voltage-gated sodium voltage-gated sodium channel [PMID 24337656].
  • Genes SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN3A, SCN1B, and SCN2B voltage-gated sodium [PMID 30693367].
  • SNP rs3828275 [SNPedia] [PMID 22840783] Genetic variability in glutamic acid decarboxylase genes: Associations with post-traumatic seizures after severe TBI [PMID 19111404]. Genetic biomarkers of posttraumatic epilepsy: A systematic review [PMID 28242442].
  • EpilepsyGene database [http://61.152.91.49/EpilepsyGene/]
  • [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1059131116302989] lists 977 epilepsy-associated genes, including:
    • ALDH7A1 AARS ALG13 ARHGEF9 ARV1 CACNA1A CDKL5 CPA6 DNM1 DOCK7 EEF1A2 FGF12 FRRS1L GABRA1 GABRB3 GABRD GABRG2 GNAO1 GPR98 GRIN2B GRIN2D GUF1 HCN1 ITPA KCNA2 KCNB1 KCNQ2 KCNQ3 KCNT1 NECAP1 PCDH19 PLCB1 PNPO PRRT2 SCN1A SCN2A SCN8A SCN9A SIK1 SLC1A2 SPTAN1 SLC12A5 SLC13A5 SLC25A12 SLC25A22 ST3GAL3 ST3GAL5 STXBP1 SZT2 TBC1D24 TSC1 TSC2 UBA5 WWOX GABRD GABRG2 SCN1A SCN1B SCN9A STX1B KCNMA1 SLC6A1 CHD2 GRIN2A GABRG2 CACNA1H GABRA1 GABRB3 CLCN2 EFHC1 CACNB4 CLCN2 EFHC1 GABRD GABRA1 CACNB4 CLCN2 GABRD SLC12A5 SLC2A1 CACNA1H CASR ADRA2B CNTN2 CPA6 GAL LGI1 KCNC1 CERS1 CSTB EPM2A GOSR2 KCTD7 LMNB2 NHLRC1 PRDM8 PRICKLE1 SCARB2 CHRNA2 CHRNA4 KCNT1 CHRNB2 DEPDC5 AARS ADRA2B ALDH7A1 ALG13 ARHGEF9 ARV1 CACNA1A CACNA1H CACNB4 CASR CDKL5 CERS1 CHD2 CHRNA2 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 CLCN2 CNTN2 CPA6 CSTB DEPDC5 DNM1 DOCK7 EEF1A2 EFHC1 EPM2A EPM2A FGF12 FRRS1L GABRA1 GABRB1 GABRB3 GABRD GABRG2 GAL GNAO1 GOSR2 GPR98 GRIN2A GRIN2B GRIN2D HCN1 ITPA KCNA2 KCNB1 KCNC1 KCNMA1 KCNQ2 KCNQ3 KCNT1 KCTD7 LGI1 LMNB2 NECAP1 NHLRC1 PCDH19 PLCB1 PNPO PRDM8 PRICKLE1 PRRT2 SCARB2 SCN1A SCN1B SCN2A SCN8A SCN9A SIK1 SLC1A2 SLC12A5 SLC13A5 SLC25A12 SLC25A22 SLC2A1 SLC6A1 SPTAN1 ST3GAL3 ST3GAL5 STX1B STXBP1 SZT2 TBC1D24 UBA5 WWOX SCN1A SCN1B SCN2A SCN8A SCN9A KCNA2 KCNB1 KCNC1 KCNMA1 KCNQ2 KCNQ3 KCNT1 HCN1 CACNA1A CACNA1H CACNB4 CLCN2a GABRA1 GABRB1 GABRB3 GABRD GABRG2 GRIN2A GRIN2 B GRIN2D CHRNA2 CHRNA4 CHRNB2 AARS ALDH7A1 ALG13 CDKL5 CERS1 CHD2 CPA6 DNM1 EPM2A GNAO1 GUF1 ITPA NHLRC1 PLCB1 PNPO PRDM8 SIK1 ST3GAL3 ST3GAL5 UBA5 WWOX ARHGEF9 CSTB DOCK7 TBC1D24 SLC1A2 SLC12A5 SLC13A5 SLC25A12 SLC25A22 SLC2A1 SLC6A1 ADRA2B CASR FRRS1L GPR98 SCARB2 CNTN2 PCDH19 EFHC1 FGF12 GOSR2 STX1B STXBP1 LMNB2 SPTAN1 EEF1A2 GUF1 ARV1 DEPDC5 GAL KCTD7 LGI1 NECAP1 PRICKLE1 PRRT2 SZT2 PTCH1a OCLN GPR56 GPR56 FIG4a NSDHL PIK3R2a TUBA8 SRPX2 TUBB2Ba FLNA ARFGEF2 ERMARDa DCX PAFAH1B1a TSC1 TSC2 KIF2A KIF5C TUBB2A TUBB3a TUBG1a CNTNAP2 LAMC3 AMPD2 CLP1 EXOSC3a PCLOa SEPSECS TSEN2a TSEN54 VPS53 TSEN15 OPHN1a ATN1 SLC20A2a XPR1a SLC12A6 PLEKHG2a CCDC88C MPDZa COL4A2a EMX2 TUBA1A LAMB1 RELN ARX DCX PAFAH1B1a CDK5a KATNB1 NDE1 SPATA5 WDR73a CASK STAMBP IER3IP1 PNKP PPP1R15Ba TRMT10A RTTN KIF11 MED17 ANKLE2a ASPM CENPEa CENPJa MFSD2A SASS6a WDR62a QARS DIAPH1 HERC1a STRADA SYN1 SNIP1 AMPD2 CASK CDK5 EXOSC3 FIG4 HERC1 KATNB1 NSDHL PAFAH1B1 PIK3R2 PNKP QARS SEPSECS STAMBP TRMT10A TSEN15 TSEN2 TSEN54 ARFGEF2 CCDC88C OPHN1 PLEKHG2 PPP1R15B TSC2 MFSD2A SLC12A6 SLC20A2 SPATA5 GPR56 PTCH1 XPR1 CNTNAP2 COL4A2 LAMB1 LAMC3 RELN OCLN SYN1 CENPE CENPJ DCX DIAPH1 FLNA KIF11 KIF2A KIF5C PCLO TUBA1A TUBA8 TUBB2A TUBB2B TUBB3 TUBG1 ARX CLP1 EMX2 ANKLE2 ASPM ATN1 ERMARD IER3IP1 MED17 MPDZ NDE1 RTTN SASS6 SNIP1 SRPX2 STRADA TSC1 VPS53 WDR62 WDR73 CCM1 KRIT1 CALM2 KCNQ1 KCNJ5 CAV3 GUCY1A3 RNF213 COL4A1 PRNP PROS1 CTC1 F2 JAM3 APP PSEN1 PSEN2 UBE3A CHD8 TMLHE RPL10 SLC9A9 FMR1 MAPT ARID1A ARID1B ASXL1 AUTS2 BRAF DEAF1 DYNC1H1 GNB1 HIVEP2 KAT6A KIAA0442 KIF1A MBD5 MED13L MYT1L NONO PPP2R1A PPP2R5D PURA SETBP1 SMARCA2 SMARCA4 SMARCB1 SMARCE1 SYNGAP1 TCF4 ZEB2 ANK3 ERCC6 FMN2 FTO GRIK2 HERC2 KPTN LMAN2L MAN1B1 MED25 METTL23 NRXN1 PGAP1 PIGG PUS3 SOBP TRAPPC9 IQSEC2 SLC9A6 SYP USP9X ZDHHC15 AP1S2 ATP6AP2 CLIC2 CUL4B DLG3 FGD1 GRIA3 HCFC1 IL1RAPL1 KDM5C KIF4A MECP2 MID2 PAK3 PHF6 RAB39B SMS TAF1 THOC2 UBE2A CACNG2 COL4A3BP DYRK1A FTSJ1 GATAD2B GDI1 GPT2 GRIN1 MEF2C SHROOM4 RAI1 SERPINI1 BSCL2 XK MTOR ALG1 ALG11 ALG2 ALG3 ALG6 CAD COG4 COG6 DOLK DPAGT1 DPM1 DPM2 MOGS MPDU1 NGLY1 RFT1 SLC39A8 STT3A STT3B SLC35A2 SSR4 ALG12 ALG9 COG7 COG8 AHI1 CC2D2A CSPP1 OFD1 BMP4 OTX2 RBP4 SOX2 NAA10 PIGN AD SMu PIGT PIGA CHKB LAMA2 TRAPPC11 B3GNT1 B4GAT1 FKTN GMPPB POMGNT1 POMK POMT1 POMT2 NF1 DNMT1 SPTLC2 ABHD12 FOXG1 ASAH1 GNAQ PEX2 PEX13 PEX14 PEX19 PEX3 ACTB ACTG1 ACVR1 ADNP DNMT3A EFTUD2 EHMT1 FAM111A FGFR2 FGFR3 GATA6 HNF1B KCNH1 KCNJ6 KMT2A MAF MAGEL2 MAPRE2 MARCA2 MSX2 NOTCH1 NSD1 POGZ PTEN PUF60 SATB2 SETD2 SOX5 ZSWIM6 AGPS ALDH18A1 AP3D1 ARNT2 ATP6V0A2 BRAT1 C12orf57 C19orf61 CCDC88A CEP164 CLPP COL18A1 CRB2 CRLF1 DHCR24 DOCK6 EPG5 EXT2 FAT4 GNPAT GPSM2 GPX4 LRP2 MKS1 NANS NIN PARN PEX5 PIGL RAB18 RAPSN ROGDI SLC33A1 SLC35A3 TELO2 XPNPEP3 AMER1 DXS423E NDUFB11 NHS SMC1A BCAP31 CHRDL1 DKC1 EBP MBTPS2 PQBP1 RBM10 ZC4H2 CEP290 CHN1 KRAS NDN NRAS SHANK3 SNRPN IRF3 TICAM1 TRAF3 BCL10 CORO1A IFNAR2 ISG15 ORAI1 PGM3 PRKDC STAT1 STAT2 ATP6AP1 IFIH1 NOD2 CD59 PSMB8 RANBP2 CARD9 DOCK8 FADD HAX1 AD CPT2 ACADSB AUH C2orf25 CLPB CTH D2HGDH DHTKD1 DPYS GLYCTK MMAA MMADHC MTR SLC25A1 ACSF3 IDH2 AASS ALDH4A1 AMT ARG1 GCH1 GLDC GLUL LIAS PRODH QDPR SLC25A15 COQ2 COQ4 COQ6 COQ8A COQ9 PDSS2 CARS2 EARS2 FARS2 GFM1 GTPBP3 MRPS22 MTFMT MTO1 NARS2 RMND1 TXN2 VARS2 AIFM1 ABCC8 KCNJ11 ZFP57 ATP1A2 RYR1 ABAT ACADS ACOX1 ACY1 ADK ADSL AMACR ASNS ATIC BCKDHA CPS1 DHFR DLD DPYD FAR1 HIBCH MCCC1 MCCC2 MLYCD MTHFR NADK2 OPLAH PC PDHX PDX1 PHGDH PSAP PSAT1 PSPH SCO2 SLC25A20 UPB1 HSD17B10 PDHA1 GK MAOA NDP OTC PGK1 BCKDK HADHA HMGCS2 NAT8L PEX7 POMC SLC46A1 FOLR1 AGL GYS1 CACNA1D GLI2 PROK2 THRB MCM8 MRAP HESX1 AVPR2 ANOS1 FGF8 PGAP2 PGAP3 PIGO PIGV PIGW PIGY GNA11 AKT2 GCK INSR TRPM6 CNNM2 EGF PTH LRPPRC NDUFA2 NDUFAF6 NDUFS4 NDUFS8 NPC1 NPC2 ATP7A POLG2 ATP5A1 ATPAF2 BCS1L BOLA3 BRP44L C10orf2 FBXL4 MPC1 PNPLA8 POLG RRM2B RTN4IP1 SDHD SUCLA2 TMEM70 UQCC2 APOPT1 COX10 COX6B1 COX8A FASTKD2 PET100 FOXRED1 NDUFA1 NDUFAF3 NDUFV1 NUBPL HGSNAT IDS DNAJC5 CLN3 CLN5 CLN6 CLN8 CTSD CTSF GRN MFSD8 PPT1 TPP1 SLC19A3 TPK1 CYP27B1 ANKH COL3A1 DNM1L TTR ARHGDIA CYB5R3 ECM1 ETFDH ETHE1 GAMT GBA HADHB HEXA HSD17B4 KCNJ10 LARS2 MOCS2 PIGM PLA2G6 SLC17A5 TANGO2 FTL SLC16A1 WDR45 SLC6A8 GPHN CAMTA1 SLC9A1 PDE10A SGCE ACO2 CRYAB NALCN TBCK UNC80 GLRA1 SPR KCNA1 SLC1A3 ATP1A3 HTT LRRK2 DNAJC6 SYNJ1 AFG3L2 SACS NIPA1 AP4B1 AP4E1 AP4S1 ERLIN2 GJC2 HACE1 TECPR2 ZFYVE26 PLP1 ADD3 ELOVL4 GAD1 SLC1A4 ATXN10 ITPR1 TBP ANO10 GRM1 RUBCN SNX14 SYT14 TDP2 TDP1 GFAP GALC TUBB4A FMR1 CUX1 MCM9 KCNT1 AIMP1 ARSA HSPD1 POLR3B VPS11 CSF1R DARS2 EIF2B1 HEPACAM MLC1 RNASET2 BRCA2 SCN3A SCN4A SCN5A KCNAB1 KCNAB2 KCNC3 KCND2 KCND3 KCNE1 KCNH2 KCNH5 KCNJ2 KCNMB3 KCNN3 KCNV2 KCTD3 HCN2 HCN4 CACNA1G CACNA2D1 CACNA2D2 RYR3 TRPM1 CLCN4 CLCN6 GABRA6 GABRB2 GRIK1 GRINA CHRFAM7A CHRNA7 CHRNB3 ACMSD ACOT7 ADAM22 AKT3 CBL CHD1L CHD3 CHD4 COX1 COX3 CP CSNK1G1 CYP26C1 DGKD DNM3 FASN FBXO28 GBE1 HCK HDAC4 HECW2 HS2ST1 HUWE1 INPP4A KARS KDM6A KIAA1456 MAGI2 MAN2A2 MANBA MAPK10 MCM9 ME2 MPP7 MRI1 MTMR11 ND1 ND4 ND5 NEDD4 NEDD4L NEU1 OPA1 PARK2 PHF8 PIGQ PNPT1 PRKX PTPN23 SGK223 ST8SIA2 STK11 TK2 TNK2 TRIM8 TRMT44 UBR5 WHSC1 ZMYND8 ARHGEF15 ELMO1 FARP2 FSTL5 NOL3 NPRL2 NPRL3 PPP1R3C RANGAP1 RAPGEF6 SRGAP2 AAAS ATP13A2 ATP6 ATP6V0C ATP8 ATP8A2 NIPA2 OCA2 SLC1A1 SLC25A2 SLC26A1 SLC30A3 SLC4A10 SLC4A3 SLC6A3 SLC6A4 SLC7A11 SLC8A1 SLCO1B7 TAP1 ADORA2A AGTR2 CD46 CRHR1 CXCR4 ENG EPHA5 EPHB2 ERBB4 FLT4 GABBR1 GABBR2 HTR1A HTR2A IL27RA LPHN2 NPC1L1 NR2F1 OPRM1 OR10H2 PLXNB2 RORB RTN4R TRNR1 TSPAN7 DLG2 GIPC1 COL2A1 COL6A2 COL6A3 HSPG2 MATN4 NID1 TNFAIP6 CELSR3 CHL1 CTNND2 L1CAM NLGN1 PCDH12 PCDH15 PCDH7 PCDHB13 PCDHB4 PCDHG BDNF BMP5 CRH IL10 IL1B IL1RN IL6 NRG2 NRG3 PDYN SEMA5B CALN1 CLSTN1 GJD2 LOR PMP22 EXOC6B NAPB SEC24D SNAP25 SV2A SYN2 SYT2 TSNARE1 VPS35 DMD GAS2L2 HIP1 KIF3C MYH14 MYH6 MYO9B NEB SVIL TBCD TUBA3E BRD2 CELF4 CENPW CREBBP CUX1 DMBX1 EFTUD2 EIF2C4 EIF3E GMEB2 HNRNPH1 HNRNPU HOXD INO80 JRK KLF13 MED12 MLLT3 MSC MYOCD PHOX2B RBFOX1 RBFOX3 RBPJ RFX3 SCA2 SCNM1 SETD5 SON THAP1 YAP1 ZBTB18 ZMYND11 ZNF12 ZNF182 ZNF44 TBCD TOR1A APOE4 CYTB KPNA7 WDR19 C3 IGSF8 BRWD3 BSN C16orf62 C18orf25 C7orf55 DIP2C FLG GRIP1 HEG1 ITGB1BP1 KIAA2022 LRFN5 NCKAP5 NELL1 NGFRAP1 NKAIN3 NOL11 PIK3AP1 PODXL PRICKLE2 PRRC2B RB1 RD3 SEZ6 SHANK1 SKI SLC7A6OS SQSTM1 ST5 ST7 STYXL1 TBL1XR1 TENM2 TMEM139 TSPYL4 TTN YWHAE ZFYVE20

For more information, please see Genomics, Epigenetics, and Nutrigenomics

Ketogenic Diet

This approach has been used by conventional medical practitioners in some cases, but in Dr. Weyrich's opinion is under-utilized.

Treat Dysbiosis

Treat dysbiosis if present.

Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN)

According to the Low Dose Naltrexone home page [LDN], LDN has been seen to benefit many different neurodegenerative diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease. Although Dr. Weyrich is not aware of any reports of treating seizure disorders using LDN, Dr. Weyrich speculates that seizure disorders may also respond to LDN.

Dr. Weyrich has been trained in the use of Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN). However, Dr. Weyrich has not treated any cases of seizure disorders with LDN.

Please see What is Low Dose Naltrexone? for more information.

Neuro-Gen High Performance Neuromodulation (HPN)

HPN has been reported to be useful for treating epilepsy and other seizure disorders [Snook]. Dr. Weyrich has been trained in the use of Neuro-Gen High Performance Neuromodulation system by it's inventor, Corey Snook. However, Dr. Weyrich has not treated any cases of seizure disorders with this technique.

Please see What is Neuro-Gen High Performance Neuromodulation? for more information.

Neurotransmitter Balancing

Neuro Research [Hinz2015] reports that chronic diseases such as epilepsy can be benefited by balancing neurotransmitter levels in the body.

Dr. Weyrich has been trained in neurotransmitter balancing protocols, but has not treated epilepsy using this technique.

Please see What is Neurotransmitter Balancing? for more information.


ICD-10 Codes related to Epilepsy and other Seizure Disorders


References for Epilepsy and other Seizure Disorders